Small child

The most common diseases and conditions of children up to 2 years old

The most common diseases and conditions of children up to 2 years old



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A child up to the age of two undergoes the period of infancy (up to the first year of life) and post-infant life (until the end of the second). Unfortunately, at this time the body adjusts only to life outside the womb, so it is definitely more susceptible to bacteria and viruses, which many in the surrounding environment.

The child's immune system up to the second year is simply immature and needs time to get properly immunized. And so, visits with children of other family members, shopping, visits to the clinic and even a walk are just some places where threats are waiting for your toddler. Some people are able to cope with some and not, so the child begins to get sick. Of course, there are plenty of diseases and this is a topic for several articles, but I looked at the most common. What are the most common diseases for children under 2 years old?

Skin diseases

Unfortunately, all children have problems with their skin, especially the smallest ones. Baby skin is very delicate, often dry and rough. It is not without reason that infants (especially newborns) should have appropriate cosmetics selected for their age. But a good preparation is not always enough, often despite its systematic application, the toddler has skin problems. These include: diaper dermatitis, AD, cradle cap, prickly heat.

Diaper dermatitis occurs in the perineum, where the diaper usually clings. Initially, they may appear slight redness, followed by erythema and even painful erosions. The cause of diaper dermatitis is urine and fecesthat under the diaper are irritating to the sensitive skin of the child. In addition, the diaper is often airtight, which is great for bacteria and viruses. If we detect the problem relatively quickly, it is enough to wash the crotch frequently and lubricate with appropriate ointments intended for this purpose. One should also remember about frequent rewinding and ventilation of the toddler's bottom. It is also worth considering changing diapers to other ones, because sometimes they can be the cause of chafing.

AD is a disease considered hereditary (it is sufficient if someone in the family is allergic). Initially manifested dry skin, then on the cheeks, chin, forehead there are changes that itch. Often, the changes spread to the whole body, neck, torso, arms, legs. AD can appear in a 3-month-old child as a slight dryness of the skin, which is why it is usually underestimated.

A child with AD is often due to severe itching of the skin restless and tearful. In addition, there may be a decrease in immunity and a tendency to skin superinfection. There is no universal cure for AD, the basis for help is proper care, warm baths in emollients and frequent oiling of the skin. It is also important to wear appropriate, airy clothing, use delicate, hypoallergenic powders for washing, and refrain from using fabric softeners.

Cradle cap are yellow, greasy scales and scabs that adhere tightly to the scalp in the area of ​​the fontanelle. It also happens to occupy the forehead, neck and torso. Usually appears between the second and tenth week of life, although this condition may be prolonged. Oily preparations (oils) that soften the scales are used for treatment. It is also recommended to wash with delicate shampoos.

heat rash are small, numerous bubbles on the child's body (back, neck, head, groin) most often caused by overheating of a small organism. Excessive sweating and obstructed airflow caused by too warm clothing causes additional sweat retention under the skin. To get rid of clashes, it's often enough to avoid getting too warm and often wash the area prone to change. Oiling of these places is not recommended. Often, proper skin care is enough for the sweats to disappear, although it can happen that excessive heating of the child's body can cause inflammation, and in this case you will need the help of a doctor and the administration of antibacterial drugs.

Infants and infants are not only skin diseases, but also various types of infections. What?

Runny nose in a small child

Runny nose appears very often not only in babies, but also in larger children. No wonder this infection is very contagious and unfortunately annoying. Infection occurs through a droplet pathway, so it spreads very easily.

Runny nose is caused by viruses, less often by allergens. In infants and young children it is particularly troublesome. They are not able to get rid of secretions themselves, which is why they often have a stuffy nose, which not only makes breathing difficult, but also food intake (especially babies fed with a bottle or breast).

Unfortunately, babies are more likely to experience this type of infection because of poor immunity, so they often have to face it. Runny nose is often accompanied by sneezing, a runny nose which becomes denser after two days, and a slight fever and cough may appear.

Untreated runny nose can lead to serious complications so it's better not to underestimate it. Make sure your toddler he took enough fluids in the form of herbal teas (raspberry, elderberry, linden) and fruit juices rich in vitamin C (currant, orange).

It is also important to regularly clean the toe using a saline solution (or sea water) and an aspirator (or pear). You can also rub your back with warming ointments (e.g. Depulol), marjoram ointment around the nose to facilitate breathing and oil dry skin.

They will also be helpful inhalations, e.g. with the addition of table salt or herbs (e.g., chamomile). However, if we use nasal drops it is worth first to make sure they are properly adapted to our child's age and not to use them for more than three days. It is worth taking care of a dusty toddler, that the apartment is often ventilated, and the ambient temperature was not too high, so that the air was not over-dried and did not hinder the baby's breathing. When the runny nose lasts more than a week, the discharge takes on a greenish color, the child also has vomiting, coughing and high fever should immediately see a doctor who will prescribe the appropriate treatment.

Ear infection in a child

Ear infections often occur between six and eighteen months of age. It is usually a complication after upper respiratory tract infection. Revealed earache, in babies it can be seen gripping the ear, rubbing one side of the head against the pillow, high fever (up to 40 degrees), irritability, in addition, there may be abdominal pain, diarrhea and even purulent discharge from the ear.

Otitis requires antibiotic treatment, so if you suspect this type of illness in our child, you need to see a doctor. Your doctor will assess how advanced your inflammation is. It will recommend the administration of an antibiotic, painkiller and appropriate ear care. If necessary, he will refer the child to an ENT specialist.

Read more about child's ear infection.

Trzydniówka

Three days (sudden erythema) - is a viral disease that occurs in children between 6 and 36 months of age. It often manifests itself only elevated body temperature. Because it often gives no other symptoms, it is confused with teething and respiratory infections.

Three days are characterized sudden high temperature (39-40 degrees), lasting about 3-5 days. Sometimes it may appear light runny nose, swollen lymph nodes, diarrhea, convulsions, lack of appetite. When the fever passes, a rash may appear on the face, torso, thighs and buttocks, which disappears after 2 days.

The three-day fever is contagious disease, until the rash occurs, the child becomes its carrier, however, it is a one-time illness that causes lifelong immunity. To help your child survive this disease, fever-lowering drugs (paracetamol or ibuprofen) are used in the form of syrups and suppositories, and you should also remember to give plenty of fluids. When the fever is high and very troublesome for the toddler, you can make cold compresses on the neck and forehead or bathe the baby in lukewarm water. Three days do not require the use of other drugs, often lowering body temperature is enough.